Approx time to index penalty website
After removing the issues and clearning the website, you need to use fetch as a google bot option in your search console. Approx 90 days are taken to get the some of lost ranking.
After rectification of all errors, google starts re-indexing your website with in 90 days.
Keep in mind
Do not do offpage optimization while re-indexing of your website. Try to create more appropriate internal links. In the period of re-indexing, you should add more and more fresh and genuine content with contextual internal linking. Offpage optimization should be started after 6 month of re-indexing of your website.
I hope you have gotten what you were looking for.